INCIDENCE OF MULTIPLE MYELOMA IN OUR HOSPITAL CENTER
Evento: SPPC 2021
Poster Número: 047
Autores e Afiliações:
Olímpia Varela, Sara Sousa, José António Carvalho, Ana Paula Castro, Emília Mesquita, Eliana Costa;
Serviço de Patologia Clínica, Centro Hospitalar de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by plasmocyte expansion in the bone marrow and the production of monoclonal immunoglobulin, or a fragment of this, called M protein, causing bone destruction, renal failure, anemia and hypercalcemia (1). IgG monoclonal immunoglobulins are the most common[(2). It is slightly more common in men than in women and in individuals who are 65 to 74 years old (3, 4).
OBJECTIVES / METHODS
The objective of this work is to report epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of MM, taking into account laboratory diagnosis in patients in our hospital center.
Two-year retrospective study of Multiple Myeloma. The data collected included the age, gender residence, myelogram and protein electrophoresis results.
58 cases of patients diagnosed with MM were selected between January 2019 and December 2020. Of these, 35 (60%) were male and 23 (40%) were female. The majority of patients (28%) was between 71 to 75 years old (n=16).
In all of patients, immunoglobin secretion was observed in 47 (81%) cases. Of these, there were 21 (36%) cases with monoclonal protein IgG κ, 11 (19%) with paraprotein IgG λ, 6 (10%) with monoclonal protein IgA κ, 6 (10%) with IgA λ and in 3 patients (5%) with monoclonal protein IgA we had no access to the result of the light chain secretion. The others 11 (19%) cases only had light free chains (CLL): 7 (12%) CLL κ and 4 (7%) CLL λ.
Our hospital center covers 3 districts, therefore, regarding the incidence, in the district that had the greatest number of patients, 34 patients (59%) were diagnosed, which translates, considering the total population of it, in 0,018%. Whereas in other district 18 patients (31%) were diagnosed and, in the last one, n=6 (10%) cases were diagnosed.
In the study population, there was a higher prevalence of MM in males compared to females, as is expected in this pathology.
The most frequent type of heavy chains was IgG, n=32 (55%) cases, as well as is described in literature.
Regarding the age group, the cases diagnosed with MM had a higher incidence rate in age range higher than that which is reported in the literature (65-74 years old).
The authors declare that there are no competing interests.